Each of these speeches and documents received wide distribution within the worldwide nuclear community. All were extensively distributed to personnel at more than 40 nuclear utilities and 103 nuclear plants in the U.S. All were distributed to the nuclear divisions of 14 international nuclear suppliers, such as GE, Westinghouse, Siemens, Hitachi, etc. Many were distributed widely to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and U.S. Department of Energy personnel. Many were distributed to nuclear organizations in 32 other countries.
The following list of speeches and documents is divided into two parts: those authored entirely or principally by Dr. Pate and those prepared under his direct supervision.
Authored entirely or principally by Dr. Pate
Performance Objectives and Criteria for Operating Nuclear Electric Generating Stations – first edition, 1981
Managing for Performance – An INPO Perspective – 1985
This paper set forth five areas of management shortfalls in the U.S. nuclear industry that were impeding progress in improved performance.
The Operating Crew’s Role in Preventing Core Damage – 1986
This paper describes the history of reactivity accidents and serious incidents around the world. It stresses that the Three Mile Island accident was a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and that much had already been done to avoid another LOCA in the U.S., but that not enough had been done to avoid a reactivity accident. It called on the U.S. industry to take steps in operator training to ensure avoidance of a reactivity accident.
Professionalism in Operations – 1987
This paper and presentation describe the shortfalls in the climate, atmosphere and culture in the U.S. that impede the highest levels of professional behavior and performance by operating personnel in U.S. nuclear plants. The paper called for the development of a “professional code for operators” by each U.S. nuclear plant, with direct operator participation in the development of the code. This was subsequently completed at every U.S. nuclear plant.
Professional and Conservative Decision-Making by Managers, Engineers, Operators, and Technicians – 1989
This paper stressed the need for conservative approach to decision making, especially in activities that can affect the reactor. The statement was included in the paper:
“The Nuclear Professional is thoroughly imbued
with a great respect and sense of responsibility for
the reactor core – for reactor safety – and all his
decisions and actions take this unique and grave
responsibility into account.”
This statement by Dr. Pate has been quoted and re-quoted in many forums, not only in the U.S., but also in many other countries with nuclear programs. At some plants, operators were given cards imprinted with this statement for carrying on their person.
In-reactor Fuel-damaging Events – A Chronology 1945-1990 – distributed in 1991
This document is the result of researching the cause of serious nuclear incidents and accidents over the 45-year period from 1945 to 1990. It illustrates that the dominant cause (by far) of core damaging events in nuclear electric generating plants is operator error, as opposed to engineering or design flaws; or equipment failures. The paper was disseminated widely in the worldwide nuclear community, and has been the basis for a strong emphasis on operator training and the development of sound “safety cultures” at nuclear plants.
This paper was utilized for the training of operators in every U.S. nuclear plant. It was translated into eight languages (Russian, Chinese, Spanish, French, German, Portuguese, Japanese, and Korean). It was used for the training of operators in nuclear plants in Russia and in many other countries.
The Message from the Top – 1999
This paper and presentation called on Dr. Pate’s extensive experience to illustrate how top executives influence safety culture in nuclear plants they own and operate.
Minor Core Damage – 2002
This paper and presentation illustrate the risks and consequences of minor damage to the nuclear fuel in a power reactor.
The paper led to the formation of an international study group by the World Nuclear Association in London and to considerable re-evaluation of and improved understanding of “minor core damage.”
Prepared under Dr. Pate’s direct supervision
The Process for Accreditation of Training in the Nuclear Power Industry –
recurring editions from 1983-1998
The Objectives and Criteria for Accreditation of Training in the Nuclear
Power Industry – recurring editions from 1983-1998
Principles of Professionalism – 1989
This document sets forth the principles that need to be in place in an organization to create the right environment for highly professional performance of operators and technicians in a nuclear plant. It sets forth the principles needed for a strong safety culture.
Excellence in Human Performance – 1997
This document sets forth the principles that need to be followed in the management and operation of nuclear plants to promote the highest levels of human performance.
“The Nuclear Professional is thoroughly imbued with a great respect and sense of responsibility for the reactor core – for reactor safety – and all his decisions and actions take this unique and grave responsibility into account.”
Dr. Zack Pate